Right now, under the place where you are, can lie ancient objects or even entire buildings. Every year archaeologists discover hundreds of places, which once upon a time housed the entire city, but during the excavations they are not taken immediately. And all because for such works need a lot of people, and wanting not so much. Besides, during excavations ancient objects with high probability will be broken, and it’s not just the negligence of archaeologists — the majority of the artifacts are just rotten and decomposed into parts. In addition, some historic sites are under modern buildings — so what, they need to bear? Oh, no. Fortunately, the archaeologists have a tool that allows to detect the remaining layers of the earth the ancient city is not conducting any excavation.
What is the GPR?
The name of this tool is the ground penetrating radar. The first working instances of this machine was introduced in 1970-ies and was intended to detect underwater objects. Soon, the instrument began to enjoy even the archaeologists, because they are seeking things that are hundreds of metres underground. It seems that the GPR was directly created for conducting archaeological searches.
The design of the GPR system consists of three parts:
- antenna part;
- computer to check findings;
- of the control unit.
The antenna part consists of a transmitting and receiving antenna. For the registration of the finds using a computer, specifically a laptop, because researchers can easily take it with you wherever you go. The control unit consists of different cables to transmit information.
The principle of operation of GPR is simple enough. The so-called transmitting antenna sends into the ground an electromagnetic wave. If below the surface there is nothing interesting, the wave disappears. But if there’s something there — it is reflected from the underground object straight to the receiving antenna. The acquired information is sent to the computer that is logged in a special program.
Electromagnetic wave is oscillation, which create electric and magnetic fields. They obey all the laws of waves, i.e. they can be scattered, absorbed, reflected and so on.
The price of the GPR exceeds 100 thousand rubles, so for entertainment it can afford not everyone can. But scientists such cost is not afraid, because this device significantly simplifies their work. According to the scientific journal Antiquity, recently ground-penetrating radar helped archaeologists to explore previously unexplored part of the ancient Roman city of Novi Falerii (Falerii Novi), which is located 50 kilometers from the capital of Italy — Rome.
It is believed that this ancient city was founded in the year 241 BC and was a bustling settlement for thousands of years. The area of the newly discovered town is 30.5 hectares, but it is still under the ground, archaeologists do not yet unearthed. But where did they learn that the ancient city there is another part? Of course, with the help of GPR.
Archaeologists put the GPR on the truck and explored the area, which was supposed to be the city. With sent deep into the earth of electromagnetic waves, researchers with an accuracy of 12.5 centimeters found out where the city was located at the baths, temple, market and other facilities. They even failed to detect network card of the ancient city was very detailed.
After studying the map, the scientists made a very interesting discovery — it turns out that a small Roman town like Falerii Novi, was very developed. The temple and baths were surprisingly sophisticated in design,initially the researchers expected to find a simple structure. However, it is possible that initially the settlement was modest — thanks to ground-penetrating radar, scientists have found evidence that a large structure was erected in place of simple buildings. Rather, the most ancient buildings of the city were dismantled and used for their construction the stones were useful in the construction of more modern buildings.