It is highly likely that many of us once in life had a chance encounter with the ubiquitous know-it-all. Well, so incredibly smug man, presumably intelligent, but only until, until it comes time to prove it. Almost immediately it becomes apparent that his work is either mediocre or outright bad. Scientists call this behavior the effect of Dunning-Kruger. It occurs when a person does not doubt their own competence and experiences the illusion of superiority over others. However, the most striking is that the effect of Dunning-Kruger affected almost everyone. But how is this possible and what to do with that?
Who is susceptible to the illusion of knowledge?
Typically, these people tend to think that work better than others in various fields, be it health, business or education. Oddly enough, those who has the least talent, often exaggerating its capabilities. Studies have shown that people who do not cope with a lot of tests, including grammar, mathematics and chess, will rate themselves as high as the real experts. But who is more susceptible to the effect of Dunning-Kruger? Actually, everyone is able to overlook the fact that in some matters he is incompetent.
For the first time this effect has know David Dunning from Cornell University and his graduate student Justin Kruger in 1999. They argued that people who are ignorant in some matters, are in a quandary,which is composed of two parts. First, such people often behave foolishly for lack of knowledge. Second, the lack of knowledge prevents them to understand where and what they did wrong. Simply put, ignorant people are too ignorant to realize how ignorant they are.
Although testing the effect of Dunning-Kruger we often close our eyes to our own weaknesses, people usually recognize their mistakes, if you notice them. Those who doubt in their own skills, as a rule, are willing to admit that many do not know. In turn, the experts not only acknowledge that they are knowledgeable, but I think that everyone else is as smart as they are.
It turns out, competent and highly incompetent people eventually have misconceptions about themselves and others. Those who have doubts in their own right are often unable to recognise their own shortcomings. And in the case when the person is really competent, it is difficult to accept that he is different from others. Moreover, many people who hold a logical or scientifically unfounded ideas, tend to argue that their beliefs are supported by “common sense.” They may seem so that they know what you need and don’t want to admit that do not know much.
But if the effect of Dunning-Kruger makes invisible its own shortcomings, as to know how competent or incompetent you really are? According to the authors of now classic studies, the best option is to ask otherswhat they think about you, and actually take into account what they say. It is also important to be open to new experiences.