Maybe we live in a bubble. But this is hardly the strangest thing that you’ve heard about our Universe. Now, among the innumerable theories and hypotheses, another one appeared. The new study is an attempt to resolve one of the most challenging mysteries of modern physics: why are our measurements of the expansion speed of the Universe make no sense? According to the authors, the simplest explanation is that our galaxy is in the low density Universe means that a large part of the space that we see through telescopes is part of a giant bubble. And this anomaly, the researchers write, probably interferes with the measurement of the Hubble constant – a constant value that is used to describe the expansion of the Universe.
As the universe evolved?
Try to imagine how it will look like a bubble in the Universe. It is quite difficult, as most of the space is a space with a handful of galaxies and stars, scattered in the void. But exactly the same as the region in the observable Universe, where matter is tightly bunch up or Vice versa is far from each other, stars and galaxies together with the different density in different parts of the cosmos.
Cosmic microwave background radiation (or cosmic microwave background radiation) is thermal radiation, which was formed in the early Universe and evenly fills – allows scientists with almost perfect accuracy to determine a uniform temperature of the Universe around us. Today we know that this temperature is 2.7 K (Kelvin temperature scale where 0 degrees is absolute zero). However, as writes Space.comupon closer examination you will notice small fluctuations this temperature. Model of how the universe evolved over time, suggest that these tiny inconsistencies in the end would create less dense region of space. And this kind of areas of low density would be more than enough to distort the measurement of the Hubble constant, as is happening right now.
Absolute zero is the term for a full stop motion of the molecules. The temperature of absolute zero is impossible to achieve. In 1995, it tried to make Eric Cornell and Carl wieman, but cooling of rubidium atoms, they have failed. That is why the units of temperature Kelvin no negative values.
How to measure the Hubble constant?
Today there are two main ways of measuring the Hubble constant. One of them is based on extremely accurate measurements of the CMB, which appears to be homogeneous throughout our Universe, since it was formed shortly after the Big Bang. Another method based on the supernovae and pulsating variable stars in nearby galaxies, known as Cepheids. Recall that the Cepheids and supernovae have properties that allow you to accurately determine how far away they are from Earth and how fast receding from us. Astronomers used them to build a “ladder distance” to various landmarks in the observable Universe. This “ladder” the researchers used to derive the Hubble constant. But since over the last decade, measurements of the Cepheids and the CMB become more accurate, it became clear that the data do not converge. And the variety of answers usually means that there is something we don’t know.
So, actually it is not just about understanding the current speed of expansion of the Universe, but also about understanding how to develop and expand the universe and that all this time was happening to the space-time.
Galaxy in a bubble
Some physicists believe that there is some “new physics” determining the disparity – something in the Universe that we don’t understand and that is the reason of unexpected behavior of space objects. According to study author Lucas Lombriser, new physics would be very exciting solution to the problems of the Hubble constant, but it usually involves a more complex model, which requires clear evidence and must be supported by independent measurements. Other scientists believe that the problem lies in our calculations.