According to the world health organization, the Ebola virus and the Marburg virus, which are included in the list of the most dangerous pathogens known at the moment, was supposedly derived from bats. In addition, the transmission of the pathogen rabies, SARS, MEPC and, obviously, a new type of coronavirus, they are involved as well, judging from the available research. What allows bats to be so perfect viral incubators?
Diseases, arising due to the fault of bats
As you know, bats are a natural source of rabies, but despite this rather unpleasant feature, no threat to humans, they are not. Representatives of bats in their environment are not dangerous to humans, the greatest threat to human health only arises in the case of eating. However, in some countries, dishes from bats are considered to be one of the main national dishes.
According to an article published on the website Sciencealert.cominterested this feature the bats, the researchers conducted a new study in which they were able to study the immune system of bats and its response to different kinds of viruses. In their study, the team of scientists studied the infectivity of the virus on cell lines of bats. As control cells, experts used Vero cells that were obtained from African green monkeys.
The scientists noted that one of the most important features in the immune response of bats is a lightning-fast production of signaling molecules called interferon-alpha, launched in response to the virus. At that time, as interferon secreted proteins of virus-infected cells to adjacent cells go into a protective state.
In the experiment, the cell structures were exposed to different kinds of pathogens that mimic viruses Ebola and Marburg. While the cells of the monkeys were quickly overwhelmed by a viral attack, the cells of bat actively resisted the viral attack with ultra-fast signal transmission of interferon. It turned out that thanks to the efficient signalling of the immune system that prevent cell death, the body of bats is sustainable and effective system in the struggle with dangerous viruses. Anyway, with the help of interferon, the virus has to remain in the body of the bat, where they are forced to adapt and evolve, mutating into an increasingly strong and contagious viruses.
Since effective immune system of bats is able to repel viral attack, the virus “improving” in order to clear the living organism barrier. Then, when transmission of the virus to someone from living beings, the immune system of the infected people can not withstand the increasing onslaught of the virus that eventually leads to the development and spread of dangerous diseases around the world.