13.8 billion years ago the universe was a singularity , a space is infinitely compressed high pressure. However, less than one fraction of a billionth of a second, this tiny dot has expanded to incredible size. A classic story of our Universe has a beginning, middle and end. So, according to the General theory of relativity (gr) by albert Einstein, over time, the expansion of the Universe should slow down. However, the reality paints a completely different picture: the universe continues to expand faster and faster. The reason for this discrepancy, scientists believe the mysterious dark energy, but it is possible that our understanding of the Universe and its evolution needs to be reconsidered.
How it all began and how could it be otherwise?
The universe began to expand immediately after the Big Bang. The rate of expansion at its early stage of evolution — a process called cosmological inflation was much greater than after the end of inflation. So, gradually, the universe expanded and cooled, but only in proportion to the initial speed. For the next 380,000 years the universe was so dense that the space was a opaque, sverhdorogoy plasma scattering particles. When the universe cooled enough to form the first hydrogen atoms, it became transparent to light passage. Then the rays broke out in all directions and the universe was on my way to becoming as we see it today — an empty space, whichwith clumps of gas and dust, stars, galaxies, black holes, and other forms of matter and energy. In the end, according to some models, all blobs of material diverge so far from each other, which will gradually disappear. The universe will become cold homogeneous soup of isolated photons. But what if the Big Bang was not the beginning of all this?
The Big Bang theory is so generally accepted that it is sometimes possible to forget that this is only a theory that has flaws. For this reason, the researchers suggest a variety of scenarios. So, speculated that the Big Bang may have been more of a “Big bounce” — a kind of turning point in the ongoing cycle of contraction and expansion of the Universe. Another assumption says that the Big Bang was the point of reflection when mirroring our Universe is expanding at “the other side”, which replaces the antimatter, matter, and time itself flows in the opposite direction. According to the third assumption of the Big Bang is a transition point in a Universe that has always existed and will continue to expand indefinitely. All these theories are beyond the basic cosmology, but they all found support among respected scientists. A growing number of new, competing theories, suggests that perhaps the time has come to reconsider the fact that the Big Bang marks the beginning of space and time.
What if the Big Bang actually was not?
In academic circles, has repeatedly expressed the idea that the Big Bang… was not. So, Eric Lerner, author of the eponymous book he wrote in 1992, presented the results of a study according to which as writes the edition Invers, there is a mismatch between Big Bang theory and the observed actual data. “For the development of cosmology it is necessary to abandon the core hypothesis of the Big Bang”, — the statement says Lerner. “The present crisis in cosmology is that the Big Bang never happened”.
We are talking about the disparity between evidence of the presence of lithium in the cosmos, what astronomers, according to Lerner, is already known. Today, scientists believe the accurate amount of helium, deuterium and lithium were obtained as a result of fusion reactions in dense, very hot cloud of chemical elements appeared after the Big Bang. However Lerner, who has spent decades observing the details of such reactions said that the results of his and other scientists do not match with the old theories, based on observations of older stars. He found that the old stars observed for less than half of helium and less than one-tenth of lithium than predicted by the theory of nucleosynthesis of the Big Bang, according to which a quarter of the total mass of the Universe consists of helium. Lerner is convinced that neither lithium nor helium was not created before the first stars in our galaxy.
However, not all scientists agree with the theory of Lerner. According to the Professor of astronomy of the University of southern California VAE Perumana, Lerner rarely cites peer-reviewed articles, and many of his arguments do not stand up to scrutiny. So, Peroomian believes that the microwave cosmic background radiation (or CMB), which indicates radiation emanating from the Big Bang, is the backbone of a cosmological theory that Lerner could not challenge. In addition, if the Big Bang theory was so serious deficiencies, Lerner was not the only critic of this theory.
But Lerner is not alone. Nobel laureate cosmologist James Peebles believes that it is necessary to cease to name the earliest moments of our Universe “Big Bang”. As reports Agence France-Presse, Peebles believes that there’s no good way to check whether such an event as the Big Bang took place — cosmologists have evidence of the rapid expansion outward, but there is nothing more discrete than singularity, which exploded to create everything in the Universe. Have Pibsa there is noto the Big Bang theory, he is convinced that without sufficient data, the researchers should not assume that this comfortable hypothesis. The researcher acknowledges that in the absence of a better way of describing the beginning of the Universe the Big Bang works great. In their calculations Peebles also adheres to the generally accepted theory,it is like.
Big rebound: can the universe expand forever?
The most common in the scientific community a hypothesis of the Big bounce originates in dissatisfaction with the idea of cosmological inflation. The cosmic microwave background radiation is a fundamental factor in every model of the Universe since, as was first discovered in 1965. Moreover, the CMB is the main source of information about how the early universe looked like and at the same time a mystery to physicists. The fact that the CMB looks the same even in regions that seemingly have never been able to communicate with each other in the entire history of the Universe.
According to the hypothesis of the Big bounce, the universe will expand until, until you fall to one infinitely small point is a loop that lasts forever. In 2007, Martin Bojowald, a physicist at the University of Pennsylvania based on the model of Einstein, proposed the theory of Loop quantum gravity — the area of quantum physics that describe the extremely high energies that dominated in the early Universe.So, the researchers came to the conclusion that the universe arose from nothing and will expand forever. However, the study of Bojowald shows that the hypothetical previous universe was not exactly like ours. In General, the hypothesis of the Big bounce is consistent with the picture of the Big Bang about hot, dense universe that originated 13.8 billion years ago, which began to expand and cool. But instead be the beginning of space and time, the big Bang was the moment of transition of the Universe from the earlier phases of existence, during which the space was reduced.
But critics believe there is little evidence to support this theory. So, Peter Voight, a mathematician from Columbia University, wrote in his blog Not Even Wrong: “in order to be considered a legitimate theory, such statements must be supported by evidence”.
Answers: all roads lead to dark energy
Based on the fact that the generally accepted theory of the origin and evolution of the Universe is the Big Bang theory, scientists are trying to answer the question of why the universe is expanding with acceleration.
As soon as the researchers analyzed the motion of stars and galaxies, they came to the conclusion about the existence of invisible particles called dark matter. A constant acceleration of the Universe expansion (Hubble constant), suggests that it is caused by some phenomenon that researchers call dark energy. Dark energy and dark matter are the major scientific riddles of our time, so the quest for answers involved the researchers of the international group for the study of dark energy (DES). DES began work in 2004 and now the project involved 400 scientists, representing 26 different academic institutions from seven countries. The search for dark energy scientists are using the most sensitive astronomical digital camera with a resolution of 570 megapixels. The camera is mounted on the Viktor Blanco telescope at the Observatory Cerro Toledo in the Chilean Andes. It’s a kind of scalpel, equipped with five lenses.