It seems that the company Google has just made a real revolution in computer science. Using the software of a quantum computer called Sycamore, a Google spokesperson said of “quantum supremacy” over the most powerful supercomputers in the world, for the reason that with the help of Sycamore they managed to solve a problem that has long been considered virtually impossible to solve on conventional computers.
The world’s most powerful supercomputer
Ordinary computers make calculations using “bits” of information, which, like the switches on and off, can only exist in two States: 1 or 0. Quantum computers, in turn, use quantum bits, or “qubits” that can exist in two States: 1 and 0 simultaneously. Such an incredible consequence of quantum mechanics is called a state of superposition and is the defining quality of the superiority of a quantum computer over a conventional.
The pair of bits can store only one of the four possible combinations of States (00, 01, 10 or 11) at any point in time. Pair of qubits can store all four combinations at the same time due to the fact that each qubit represents two values (0 and 1) simultaneously. If you add more qubits, the computer capacity grows exponentially: three qubit stored eight combinations, four of a qubit stored 16, and so on. New computer Google with 53 qubits can store values of 253, or more than 10 quadrillion combinations. This number becomes even more impressive when there is another fundamental and equally strange property of quantum mechanics — entangled state.
What is quantum entanglement?
If you try to get a pair of photons simultaneously, it turns out that the generated photons will be related to each other. If you measure the spin of one of them and get a positive or negative charge, it becomes clear that the spin of the second photon has the opposite value. However, while quantum in the free state and without any outside observer, the charge quantum is in two States simultaneously spinning clockwise and counterclockwise at the same time. Once near the quantum appears to an observer able to measure the state of a particle, the quantum suddenly acquires a unique ability of their condition becoming positively or negatively charged particle.
Albert Einstein described this phenomenon as “spooky action at a distance”, whereby particles that interact with each other at some point in time, may become confused. Thus, measuring the state of one particle allows you to know the other charge associated with the first particle, whatever the distance between them. In that case, if the qubits of a quantum computer also be confusing, they can all be measured simultaneously.
Why quantum computer Google is the most powerful in the world?
A team of researchers led by physicist / researcher at the University of California by John Martinis has created a unique challenge to verify that the host computer of Google. In order to solve the problem, a regular Turing machine would require as many as 10,000 years, while a quantum computer could complete a complex calculation of just over 200 seconds.
The calculation, which successfully managed a quantum computer, courtesy of researchers from Google, is the quantum equivalent of generating a very long list of random numbers and check their meanings a million times. Despite the fact that the result of the test does not assume the possibility of applying it outside of the quantum world, it is of great importance in determining the computing power of the device. In addition, the achievement of Google can help in creating more powerful and secure quantum computers of the future.