Astronomers Observatory at Kitt Peak, located in Arizona, USA, commenced the most detailed observations of the Universe ever taken. Observations will last for five years, their main goal is to obtain as much information as possible about the mysterious dark energy — the force that is believed to be responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. A tool called DESI, which is used to perform surveillance, includes 5000 built-in mini-telescopes. Each of them is able to capture light from galaxies every 20 minutes. Thus, during the year, scientists will study more galaxies than all the other telescopes in the world. It is known that the telescope will observe millions of galaxies 35. But whether scientists know about dark energy?
What is dark energy?
According to the theory of the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe will slow down and she may begin to shrink because of the force of gravity. However, in 1998 astronomers were shocked to find that the universe is not only still expanding, but accelerating. The most widely held view is that something counteracts the force of gravity — then it was something called dark energy. If you believe the estimates, dark energy makes up most of the Universe. Indeed, the atoms that make up stars, planets and galaxies probably make up only 5%. After the discovery of dark energy, 20 years have passed, but scientists still know nothing about her. All modern knowledge about the Universe based on a paltry 5%. It is logical to assume that understanding the nature of dark energy can lead to the real revolution in physics.
How to look for dark energy?
An international group of researchers in their work on search and study of dark energy will use a device called the “Spectroscopic tool dark energy” (DESI). He was installed on 4-meter Mayall telescope at the Observatory Kitt Peak, Arizona, USA. Inside DESI is a 5000 optical fibers, each of which acts as a mini-telescope. This allows the instrument to capture the light of 5,000 different galaxies simultaneously and accurately show their distance from the Earth, and to measure how the universe has expanded when the light reached our planet.
In ideal conditions, DESI can detect light from galaxies every 20 minutes. The farther DESI looks into space, the farther back in time he sees. The device can see objects at a distance of 10 billion light years from Earth, which means that the objects were 10 billion years ago. Previously there were other similar projects, but DESI will cover much more space and will measure the accelerating expansion of the Universe is three times more accurate than ever before. The team used previous research to create a map-guide to the Universe, of which 35 million galaxies selected as goals for DESI.
What secrets of the Universe can be revealed?
A key factor of dark energy, according to the conventional cosmological constant is a force called vacuum pressure (vacuum pressure) which is caused by fluctuations in the fabric of space-time at the subatomic level. Calculations show that the vacuum pressure should be displayed unimaginably large number (1 with 120 zeros after it), than power, “transcending the galaxy”, which astronomers do see. The researchers also do not exclude that the vacuum pressure was much, much more in the early Universe and is now reduced to current status. If, however, astronomers will discover that the vacuum pressure remains the same, to take a few speculative theories. So, we can assume that our universe is just one of many in the “multiverse” — this can be explained by the fact that the vacuum pressure in our Universe is small, while in other universes it is much more. But the matter — and, ultimately, life can only exist in a Universe like ours, with a low vacuum pressure.