In the world today, people over 65 years than ever in human history. Life expectancy has increased markedly, and have children in many countries of the world have become rarer. According to the United Nations for the first time we see a situation where older people on the planet than children. In 2019 705 million people on the planet older, and children aged 0 to 4 years, there are about 680 million. How will this affect our future?
The increase in life expectancy — a success story of our species, but the increase in the number of older people creates a number of pressing socio-economic problems.
The world’s population will continue to age, as these two groups grow in opposite directions. By 2050 the proportion of the population aged 65 years and older will increase nearly 16 percent, more than double the number of children under the age of five years.
The lack of “new”
Demographers have been tracking these trends for several decades, came to the conclusion that the reasons lie in the increasing life expectancy and decline in fertility.
But as an ageing population will impact specifically on us?
As you know, in 1960, one woman had about five children. Today, almost 60 years later, one woman has on average 2.5 children.
And in 1960, men lived on average a little more than 52 years, for example, in 2017, average life expectancy has reached 72 years. This means that with age, more people will require resources, and this, in turn, will increase pressure on health systems and pensions.
What to do with it?
Some developing countries take note of the approach of such countries as Japan and Italy, using political measures to limit fertility. China and India presented initiatives on family planning in the 1970-ies, the result of China’s population today is aging faster.
However, the decline in fertility can have a positive impact. When fertility rates decline and the population is still young, governments can spend more on secondary and higher education and stimulate the economy. As did Thailand and South Korea.
However, experts in the field of population warned that a crucial role in matters relating to the quality of life of older people will play the quality of health care.