In the material about visible from space huge swarm of ants, we mentioned about the sweltering heat that overtook the inhabitants of European countries. However, summer 2019 unpleasantly surprised and people in the US — in early July in the state of California for several days there have been over 3000 earthquakes. The tremors became the reason of occurrence of fires, outages and damage to buildings. But did you know that phenomenon very similar to earthquakes occur on other planets? For example, they are definitely on the satellite of our planet, the moon. There is also evidence that they occur on Mars, which we hope one day to move.
Between the so-called earthquakes, moonquakes and mercurysteam there is a big difference. Basically it is the frequency of aftershocks and duration of the period during which shakes the surface of a planet or satellite. A thorough study of earthquakes began in the late nineteenth century — it was then that began the science of seismology that studies the causes and consequences of the tremors. Lootrisone interested scientists in the 1970-ies, when in the framework of the mission “Apollo” on the moon was equipped with devices for measuring the strength of the vibrations of its surface. Marsotryaseniya, too, began to be studied in 1970-ies, during the mission “Viking”.
The cause of tremors on the Land is constant movement of tectonic plates that make up the surface of our planet. They move due to temperature changes in the bowels of the globe — when they are heated up and when cooling down. As a rule, the strongest earthquakes occur on the margins of tectonic plates. It is on such territory is CA, located near fault San Andreas fault that occurred between the Pacific and North American plates.
Fault San Andreas
The science that studies the causes and consequences of earthquakes, as mentioned above, is called seismology. Thanks to this science, mankind became aware that our Earth consists of several layers namely crust, mantle and core. Main working tool of seismologists is a measuring instrument seismograph, which registers even the smallest seismic waves or vibrations in the earth.
Usually the duration of earthquakes is only a few minutes. The aftershocks can occur very frequently and with great force. Depending on the strength of aftershocks, earthquakes are divided into strong, weak and microearthquakes. The most destructive, of course, are the strong earthquake which shattered buildings and killed thousands of people.
Just look at the consequences: the 10 most destructive earthquakes in history
Lentracte — earthquake on the moon
For many this can be a real discovery, but the moon sometimes, too, the shaking. The so-called lootrisone can happen almost every day due to temperature changes during sunrise and sunset. Sometimes they occur because of falling of meteorites, but guaranteed twice a month — under the influence of tidal forces of the Sun and Earth. Tremors caused by movement of tectonic plates, the moon has never been observed — these plates on our satellite is simply there.
The lunar seismograph with “Apollo-16”
The existence of moonquakes, scientists have learned in the 1970-ies, in the framework of space missions “Apollo”. It was then that the lunar surface was installed four seismometer, which for 7 years of operation has registered 28 aftershocks that occurred somewhere under the lunar surface. The power of one of moonquakes was valued at 5 points out of ten — if such a push will happen when the moon falls people, it can destroy a spacecraft and a lunar base.
During the aftershocks of the moonquakes are much less common than on Earth. But the fluctuations can last for several hours, so scientists should more carefully choose the place for planting the next visitors to the moon and building a lunar base. To find peaceful and safe areas on the satellite need to supply more seismographs.
Did you know that people will go back to the moon in 2023?
Marsotryaseniya — earthquake on Mars
Scientists already have evidence that the surface of Mars too, from time to time shaking. Causes of marzorati while it is unknown — most likely, they arise from the movement of tectonic plates. It’s also possible that they are associated with the activity of the volcano Olympus, located in the Equatorial region of the planet.
Extinct (or maybe not) volcano Olympus on Mars
First guess about the existence of marzorati appeared in 1975, when the planet had landed the unit called “Viking”. In the framework of this mission, scientists made a big mistake by installing a seismometer, not at the bottom of the device, and upstairs. He swung hard under the influence of the Martian wind, so even if the surface of the planet shook, to capture these variations were almost impossible.
Popularizer of science Carl Sagan and model of the device “Viking”
This problem was corrected in the apparatus of the InSight equipped with a seismometer SEIS. He sank to the planet’s surface in late 2018, and already a few months later recorded the first sounds marsotryaseniya. The signal was very weak, so it is assumed that the center marsotryaseniya was located deep beneath the planet’s surface. At the moment it is considered that the aftershocks are quite rare, and their frequency is even lower than on the moon.
Seismograph apparatus of InSight in the context of
Live earthquakes, lootrisone and marsotryaseniya
Want to see what happens to people and objects inside the building during the tremors in the Earth, the moon and Mars? Scientists from ETH Zurich have uploaded data on the frequency of oscillation of all three space objects in the computer and showed how it all happened.
Several researchers volunteers entered the special room, which is controlled by the computer and shaking with different frequency. At 0:56 minute shows what happens in the room during the quake — the aftershocks are quite strong and frequent, but the horror of it pretty quickly. On 1:12 minute shows unatractive, during which researchers like riding in the truck on the moon, this shaking can last more than an hour. Finally, at the 1:47 minute shows marstrasse — much swinging room, and shelves with fall items.