The universe is huge. It is difficult for us to imagine her true size. Scientists say that since the Big Bang it expanded so much that she has virtually no edge. We cannot see the entire Universe, but its those places that are open to our sight also contain many secrets, puzzles and other unusual things. In the past we’ve written about the biggest structural objects in the Universe. Today let’s talk about the single: from the largest asteroid and ending with the greatest galaxy in the visible space of the cosmos.
Help: One light year is a unit of distance measurement in astronomy equal to the distance that light pass in vacuum in one earth year.
The largest asteroid in the Solar system
Previously the largest asteroid in the Solar system is Ceres. The diameter of the object is about 950 kilometers. Second in size was considered Pallas with a diameter of 512 kilometers. But Vesta took the third place of the largest known asteroids in the Solar system, second in size to the Athena, but ahead of her on the ground.
After scientists transferred to the Ceres in the category of dwarf planets, Pallas began to occupy the top spot the biggest (in size) asteroids in the Solar system. However, the astronomers said the size of Vesta and found that it is more of a Pallada. Diameter of Vesta is 530 kilometers. Thus, Vesta was not only the largest but also the most massive asteroid in our Solar system.
See also: is the universe Finite or infinite?
The largest satellite of the planet in the Solar system
The relative size of Ganymede and other satellites of the Solar system and Earth
The satellite of the gas giant Jupiter’s Ganymede is the largest moon in the Solar system. Its diameter is 5268 kilometers.
Ganymede is one of the four largest moons of Jupiter, along with IO, Europa and Callisto, first discovered by the Italian mathematician, philosophers and astronomer Galileo Galilei. The name Ganymede until the mid-20th century, was not used. Galileo called them to open the satellites “Medici planets”, and the Ganymede — Jupiter III or “the third satellite of Jupiter”.
Scientists believe that beneath the surface of Ganymede is a vast ocean, where the water contains much more than on Earth.
See also: Scientists have named the approximate location of the birth Jupiter
The great companion of the exoplanet
The star WASP-12, located at a distance of 870 light years from us, lies the exoplanet WASP-12b. Recall that called exoplanets planets outside the Solar system.
In 2012, the planet WASP-12b was investigated by Russian scientists. They suggested that she have a companion. This possibility was based on the analysis of brightness (Shine) stars. The peculiarities of changes in the gloss it is possible to calculate what proportion of the area of the disk of the star covers the satellite. Scientists believe that the satellite has a radius of 0.57 of radius of Jupiter (he is 6.4 times the size of Earth). Such a great size and allowed to assume the existence of the satellite.
The largest planet in the Solar system
With a diameter of 142 984 kilometers Jupiter is the largest planet in the Solar system. Along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, Jupiter is classified as a gas giant.
The mass of Jupiter is 318 times the mass of the Earth. It is 2.5 times heavier than all the other planets in the Solar system combined. Giant is located at a distance of about 770 million kilometres from the Sun and makes a complete revolution around the sun approximately in 11.9 earth years.
Perhaps the most famous feature of Jupiter is its Great Red Spot (BKP) is a storm that continues on the planet for over 300 years. Spot diameter larger than the diameter of the Earth.
The biggest rocky exoplanet
The artistic representation of the planet BD+20594 b
The biggest rocky exoplanet was discovered by a space telescope “Kepler” in 2016 in the constellation of Aries, in 500 light years from us. The object, designated BD+20594b, heavier than Earth about 16 times and has a radius 2.2 times larger than the earth.
Previously the biggest rocky exoplanet was considered to be Kepler-10 c. Research said that this planet has a radius, which is 2.35 times larger than the earth, and its mass is about 17 more than Earth. However, more accurate calculations carried out in 2017, has allowed to establish that the planet Kepler-10c just 7.4 times heavier than Earth and its composition is closer to the gas giants.
The largest gas giant outside the Solar system
To determine the largest exoplanet class gas Gignac – not an easy task. Scientists need to consider many things. For example, in space there are objects so huge that they can hardly be called planets. They rather resemble a star. At the same time their weight is less than the minimum necessary to sustain nuclear reactions of hydrogen burning and become a star. Such objects are called subsistema.
Presumably the biggest exoplanet-class gas giant, among the discovered at the moment is HD 100546 b, opened in 2013. It is located in 337 light years from Earth. Scientists believe that HD 100546 b 6.9 times larger and 20 times heavier than Jupiter.
The biggest star in the Universe
Currently, the biggest star not only in our galaxy, the milky Way, but in the known Universe is a red hypergiant UY Shield. It is about 9500 light years from us. Scientists estimate that the radius of the Shield is equal to UY 1708 radii of the Sun, but it is constantly changing and can reach 2100 solar radii. The diameter of the star is 2.4 billion kilometers.
The size of our Sun and the stars UY Shield (with a magnification of 7 times)
To understand: if the Sun is to draw a small circle with a diameter of 1 mm for UY Shield will need a circle with a diameter of 1.7-2.1 metres! If you put UY Shield in the center of the Solar system, its photosphere (the emitting layer of the stellar atmosphere) will encompass the orbit of Jupiter.
According to modern astronomers, the star UY Shield 340 000 times brighter than our Sun.
See also: Scientists tell which planets have a chance to survive the death of its star
The biggest black hole
If you believe that this information, about 17 billion light years away, in the direction of the constellation Virgo, is a quasar with presumably the most massive black hole in the known Universe. The object is very difficult name SDSS J140821.67+025733.2.
The mass of an object SDSS J140821 easily elevates it to the rank ultramassive black holes. The value of this parameter is almost 3 times greater than the mass in the lead up to this ultramassive black hole quasar TON 618, whose figure is 66 billion solar masses. The weight of the new leader is 196 billion solar masses. It has a diameter of 1.17 trillion kilometers. It is more than 98 times greater than the diameter of the orbit of Pluto in the Solar system.
By the way, recently, scientists proposed the idea ofexplaining how such supermassive black holes could appear in the Universe.
See also: 10 scientific facts that we learned from the first pictures of a black hole
The largest galaxy in the Universe
The largest in size (but not mass) of the galaxy in the observable Universe is a tiny galaxy called IC 1101. Its diameter is about 6 million light-years. In other words, to overcome the distance from one edge to another, light takes 6 million years. Its size IC 1101 owes many collisions of much smaller galaxies.
Galaxy IC 1101 is located approximately one billion light years from us. It contains about 100 trillion stars. For comparison: in our milky Way galaxy may contain 200 to 400 billion stars.