Created in a laboratory analogue of a black hole have provided new indirect evidence that these mysterious space objects do emit gas streams of charged particles, according to Science Alert, referring to a new scientific study, published in the journal Nature. Physicists claim that they created the analogue of a black hole has a temperature, which is a prerequisite for the same radiation predicted by Stephen Hawking.
Black holes emit nothing. Or is it emitting?
According to the General theory of relativity (GTR), nothing can escape a black hole. Their gravitational power is so great that even light, the fastest thing in the Universe, is not able to develop enough speed to escape beyond its influence. Thus, according to General relativity, black holes cannot emit any electromagnetic radiation.
However, proposed in 1974 by Hawking’s theory said that if the question to add the rules of quantum mechanics, black holes can actually do something to radiate. This is a theoretical type of electromagnetic radiation, named after the Hawking.
This hypothetical radiation resembles a black body radiation equivalent temperature of a black hole, which is inversely proportional to its mass. To detect it directly, scientists have not yet succeeded. Recently, we received the first real pictures of the black hole, so everything is still ahead. However, physicists believe that the radiation, if it exists, would be too weak to be found using our current scientific instruments.
To measure the temperature of a black hole is also not an easy task. A black hole with the mass of the Sun will have a temperature of only 60 nanokelvins. Cosmic microwave background radiation that it will absorb, is much higher than the Hawking radiation that it would emit. Thus, the greater will be the size of a black hole, the smaller will be its temperature.
To test the hypothesis of Hawking, physics of Israeli technical University conducted an experiment with the closest “analogy” of a black hole, which to date has managed to create in laboratory conditions.
Hawking radiation is real?
It was invented by Israeli physicist Jeff Steinhauer in 2016 and represents a Bose condensate of cold atoms of rubidium (chilled nearly to the temperature of absolute zero), in which the atoms move at supersonic speed and the other moving very slowly. The condensate creates a so-called acoustic black hole that traps sound (phonons) instead of light (photons). The quanta of sound that fall into this region, is crossed by a kind of “acoustic event horizon” as I can not to leave her. By studying the characteristics of the acoustic analogue of a black hole specialists came to the conclusion that they were close to the theoretical models that imply the existence of Hawking radiation.
Even entering the experiment in 2016, Steinhauer with their colleagues were able to demonstrate that in the area of acoustic event horizon of their black hole analogue may arise a pair of entangled phonons, one of which is pushed away by the slow current atoms Bose-condensate in the space, creating a actually the effect of Hawking radiation. At the same time the other photon of the pair can be absorbed by analogue black holes by high-speed condensate.
It should be noted that in the beginning of this year, another group of Israeli physicists from the Weizmann Institute under the leadership of Ulf Leonhardt has created the analogue of a black hole, where the base for event horizon technologies have been used fiber. Then scientists thought similar to the observed result of statistical anomaly. However, the new experiment, a group of Steinhauer proved that it is not. The result of the new experiment once showed that a single photon can wabrasives in a hypothetical space, and the other absorbed the hypothetical black hole. Leonhardt has managed to comment on the success of a group of Steinhauer:
“I congratulate Jeff. This is a very important step for our scientific community. This is what really should be proud of”, noted the scientist article in the journal Physics World.
“The main innovation of the work of scientists is a clever detection scheme that they use to extract the temperature of the emitted radiation. They obtained the result using a quantum simulator provides the first proof of the existence of Hawking radiation,” commented the result of the work of the Israeli scientists was a mathematician at Nottingham University, Mrs. Weinfurtner.
Proof that Hawking was right growing up, but this new method of determining the temperature of the analogue black hole may help to gain a deeper understanding of the thermodynamics of a black hole.